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AND EVE. A favoured subject on Delftware Chargers, the first dated example
being 1635.These plates continued well into the 18th century.
AGATE. Wares made in imitation of this stone.They consisted of different coloured clays with the colours going right through the body of the piece, or ther colours were achieved by means of coloured clays on the surface of plain pottery.
ALLEN. Robert. 1744 -1835 An artist at the Lowestoft porcelain factory in Suffolk county.He was also the Manager there.
"A" MARKS >See Bow.
ANCHOR MARKS.. See Chelsea,Bow,Derby and Davenport.
An HUA. Secret decoration. Faint engraving or painting in white slip,visible only against the light,found especially on early MING and 18th Century white porcelain.
ARCANIST Workmen knowing the secret of pottery making in general and also of Porcelain.
ARCANUM. Chemical composition and technique of porcelain making.
ART POTTERY Also called Studio ware.
ASTBURY. A family of Staffordshire Potters. Also Astbury type. Classification of Satffordshire pottery in which red and white clays are combined under a transaprent lead glaze.Similar wares covered by a glaze splashed with metallic oxides are generally styled >ASTBURY WHIELDON
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WARES> A variety of stonewares,darker in tint than the cane ware,introduced
by Josiah Wedgwood in 1770.
BASALTS The name given by Wedgwood to his fine quality black stoneware intoduced in 1766
BAXTER,THOMAS... 1782-1821, Famous Porcelain Painter who worked independently and also at Worcester and Swansea.He painted figures,landscapes,shells and flowers.
BEAR JUG> Modelled in the form of a bear hugging a dog.The detachable head serves as a cup...18th century,Made in Staffordshire,England and Nottingham
BELLARMINE... Big bellied stoneware bottle with a bearded mask in relief, named after Cardinal bellarmine in 1540's.Used in magic and witchcraft.Also called greybeards.
BELLEEK A very light feldspathic porcelain cast in moulds with a lustrous pearly glaze.Invented by William Goss of Stoke on Trent,England..Improved by Bromley at the Irish Factory of D.McBirney,founded 1857 at Belleek.
BELLRINGERS JUGS... Jugs for serving ale to bellringers,kept in the Church tower.
BLANCO SOPRA BIANCO. An opaque white pigment used for decorating a tin glaze of slightly contrasted colour
BILLINGSLEY,WILLIAM 1758 -1828
One of the most famous of the Porcelain Painters and makers.Mostly remembered for his Nantgarw Porcelain factory that he founded.He learnt to paint at Derby(1775-96) then he went to Pinxton,Mansfield and Worcester in 1808 - 1813 and Swansea...In 1813 he founded the great Nantgarw factory, and it was here that this most famous porcelain was first made using his secret recipe.Billingsley was a wonderful painter of Roses, and it is his work that is so highly sought after these days.Some of his work fetches amazing sums of money as it is now quite rare.The Nantgarw porcelain works is still in S.Wales and is open daily as a Museum.
BIRD CALL..A pottery whistle that was sometimes placed inside old chimneys to ward off evil spirits.
BISCUIT or BISQUE. Unglazed Porcelain as a medium for statuettes and reliefs,used since the middle of the 18th century....
BLACK EGYPTIAN... An unglazed line grained black stoneware prefected by Wedgwood in 1769n and imitated by other potteries..Decorated in relief,also gilded and enamelled.
BLANC DE CHINE... The porcelain known as Blanc de chine was made at Te - Hua in the province of Fukien.The white china varies from a Bluish white to a deep ivory.First manufactured in the Ming dynasty.>1368-1644.This china varies from a deep ivory colour to a beautiful bluish white, was first made in the Ming dynasty in 1368 -1644. Normally found as figures of the numerous Gods of the Buddhist faith..
BLUE AND WHITE pottery and porcelain.Decoration with cobalt blue under the glaze has proved over the years to be both attractive and economical,requiring one firing only..The Chinese excelled in this,although the later export wares did not have the clarity of the earlier dynastic blue and white wares...Staffordshire in England, became the centre of excellence for British Blue and white pottery and porcelain,the most famous transfer pattern without a doubt was the willow patern, which is still as popular today as it has ever been.
BOCAGE.A background of flowers and leaves,usually on figurines such as early Staffordshire figures eg.Walton.Intended to be viewed from the front only.
BODY. The materials from which potters clay is made, the ware itself.
BONE CHINA OR BONE ASH. The white ashes of bones were used first in Bow porcelain about 1750.
BOURNE and Co...Famous stoneware potters originally from Codnor park,England and later Denby from 1812.
BOW. The famous British Bow factory started around 1745.It was certainly working pre 1750. The 1st patent was took out by Heylyn and Thomas Frye. The factory specialized in daily useful wares but are remembered mainly for the exquisite figurines produced there.The porcelain is always of a creamy colour, with some black peppering.The early wares were decorated by applied moulded sprigs. The colours used in the painting process were a rose purple,and opaque light blue,also imitation famille rose colours, but a lot of Bow porcelain was painted outside of the factory with independent decorators.Some transfer painting was employed in russet and purple black colours.
Bow figures are distinguished in the main by the neatness of the head,rather small and well defined. They are very heavy and often have a sqaure hole cut behind for the ormolu additions.Later in the history of this factory pink and a watery green was replaced by a darker transluscent colour.
BRAMPTON> Derbyshire,England.Brwon stoneware pottery,2nd half of the 18th and 19th centuries.
BRISTOL.- DELFTWARES Early Bristol ware was Delftware from about 1650 -1750.It was founded by Southwark potters..Early Bristol Delftware is difficult to distinguish from Lambeth, and also from Liverpool.Bristol though,often has a blue lavender tone and the early Red is applied in relief.Puzzle jugs and flower bricks pierced with a square hole at the top and standing on 4 bracket feet were also made in Bristol.
BRISTOL hard paste porcelain.. In 1770 the Plymouth factory moved to Bristol and the factory and the rights were bought by Richard Champion. Useful wares were very well made, having excellent painting and printed wares -- often in relief using overglaze enamels.Figures were also much made, showing a rockwork base.Biscuit plaques with applied flowers framing portraits and coats of arms were a speciality of this factory.Marks were often an imitation of the great Meissen blue crossed swords in underglaze blue or grey.
BUSSA,Large earthenware pot commonly kept in old Cornish cottages for salting down fish.
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COLOURED. Wares that were unglazed and appeared in a buff stoneware colour.Sometimes
decorated with blue etc.Wedgwood,Turner,Mayer all made this ware..
CARPET BALLS.. Used for carpet bowls, a game played in the main by wealthy aristocratic families.They were made in stoneware and coloures in ringed and flower patterns.
CASTLEFORD.A Yorkshire pottery founded in 1790 by D.Dunderdale.Best known for unglazed releif decorated stoneware usually called Castleford..They also made Black basalt wares.
CAUGHLEY.Shropshire based factory was bought by Turner in 1772,but later took over by Coalport.The wares were mainly blue and white,often printed in the Worcester manner.Caughley used 2 shades of blue one mauvish blue.
CELADON WARES. Felspathic glaze characteristically pale grey or blue green in colour derived from iron.Celadon was much exported from areas of China in the Sung and the Ming dynasties.Ching dynasty wares generally differ in their white porcelain bodies,even glaze and careful finish..
CHELSEA.Soft paste porcelain England.1745 -1784. The finest and most significent English 18th century porcelain.The earliest wares were called the Triangle period.The porcelain was of a white milky glass colour..Samll flower sprays were painted to conceal blemishes in the porcelain,and also Meissen type flowers were sometimes added in enamels. In the next period,known as the raised anchor period,the use of the painted decoration was greatly extended.The Japanese Kakiemon style being much copied.Again Meissen style was much developed with elaborate flower painting and also harbour scenes.Bird figures were also made... The suceeding red anchor period produced more skillful artistry in purple monochrome also botanical flowers --underglaze blue was used but rarely..Characteristics of the useful wares were 3 small projecting spur marks within a ground down foot rim. Tureens and dishes simulating birds,animals and vegetables were much favoured.However the most notable items produced at this time were beyond question the wonderful figurines..The figurines may be divided into mythological and abstract,eg sciences and seasons.,also hunting and pastoral life,comedy,characters and exotic subjects.They were exquisitely modelled and restrained in colour,so as to reveal the wonderful porcelain.A plain mound for the base is the normal.Some tiny etuis,scent bottles and patch boxes were also made,beautifully modelled and painted to a high standard,.
In 1758 bone ash was introduced into the mixture and the frequently crazed glaze tends to run into glassy greenish pools,the grinding of the foot rims carried on ino this period.In this the Gold Anchor period,we see ever increasing sumptuousness -coloured Mazarine blue,pea green,turquoise and claret were copied from Sevres and the gilding was lavishly used.Elaborate rococco scrollwork was used on the figures and vases.Japanese patterns resembling elaborate designs continued to be a great favourite.This was also the time when the elaborate Bocages were made and the figurines were very richly painted and gilded.In 1769 the factory was sold, and in 1770 it passed into the ownership of Wilima Duesbury and Heath of Derby.
CHIEN WARE. This production of Fulien Province during the Sung Dynasty consisted principally of small conical tea bowls.
CHILL. Earthenware oil lamp shaped like a large candlestick.
CHINA DOGS.. Mantelpiece ornaments made in Staffordshire,England,in the form of Spaniels,Welsh sheep dogs,French poodles,Greyhounds.They were made in eartheware and sold extensively in Wales ,Staffordshire and the West Country.Rarely marked with the makers names.
CHINOISERIE. Wonderful decoration in gold,silver and colours depicting an exotic scene with Chinese figures,flowers and birds and animals..
COALPORT.. A famous factory started by John Rose at Jackfield in 1780 and shortly afterwards it moved to Coalport almost opposite the Caughley factory. The Swansea and Nantgarw stocks were bought up in 1819-24 and William Billingsleys services obtained .The change in porcelain after this period became white and translucent like Welsh Porcelain.Most of Coalports decoration was done by independent decorators.Lavishly applied flowers,bright green enamelling,light coloured gilding and flower decorations washed over in colours.
COPELAND. See Spode
COTTAGES> Staffordshire pastille burners and mantelpice ornaments much favoured in Victorian days for necessary use as well as ornamental appeal.
CRAZING.. Network of fine cracks in the glaze caused by unequal shrinkage of body and glaze.Can appear because of age,damp or a general change in temperature.
CREAMWARE.. A lead glazed eartheware light body made of pale clay and usually containing calcified flint,perfected in Staffordshire,England in 1740 - 50.Made extensively in England, and enjoyed a World market in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
CRESCENT MARK.Seen on Bow,Caughley and Worcester wares.
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family of potters at Longport,Staffordshire.Made cream coloured earthenwares
and othet earthenware and also later porcelain..Marks are either an anchor
or Davenport,sometimes both.
DELFTWARE.. Earthenware coated with a glaze made opaque by the addition of tin ashes,named after Delft in Holland.,which was an important area for Dutch delftwares.
DERBY.Soft paste porcelain. By 1756 there was a prolific factory established by Wm Duesbury and John Heath.any figures were straight copies of Meissen, and the early ones are characterised by bases having a "dry" edge - bare of glaze and a hole underneath.The figures made around 1870 have a richer pallette, and gilding,these figures almost always have 3 or 4 dark patches below the base.In 1770 the Chelsea factory was bought but the Chelsea style was abandoned.The figures from this period are called Chelsea - Derby and have weaker modelling,the colours being pink,pale green and a good turquoise.Many wares were made in the Biscuit.The tablewares were finely potted and very well painted,either classical designs or floral painting.Also at this time striped grounds were combined with miniature paintings of landscapes and classical subjects. The next period 1786 - 1811 was the Crown Derby period.In 1811 the factory was bought by Bloor and the period is known by his name.Revived Roccoco and profuse brassy gilding were used on the old models,and Japanese brocaded Imari styles largely superceded the neo classical.
DOULTON. Lambeth pottery,stoneware pottery,founded in 1818,at this time making mainly industrial brown ware.The excellence of the name coming at a later period.
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Shell porcelain.Thin bodied from the 1403 -24 period of Yung Lo.Modern 20th
century versions are made in japan.
EGYPTIAN BLACK.. Hard Stoneware body heavily stained with Manganese.
ENGINE TURNING. Process of turning a dried but unfired pot on a lathe to rpoduce a relief apttern,often of an irregular basket work design.Probably introduced by Wedgwood about 1760.
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Derived originally from Italy but was adopted in France at the beginning of
the 17th century to describe tin glazed earthernware.
FAMILLE COLOURS. Known as Noire>black,Rose>pink and verte >green.Enamel colours used to colour Chinese wares.Gilding was sometimes added to heighten the effect.
FLAMBE GLAZE. Glaze in which kiln conditions produce variegated colour effects.Later Flambe made fashionable by Doulton of Staffordshire.
FLIGHT,BARR & BARR. See Worcester.
FUDDLING CUPS. Cups of 3,5 or more conjoined to communicate internally. 17th and 18th century.
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de CHEMINE. Sets of 5 vases,usually of Baluster shape,originating in China
but adopted by European factories later.
GAUDY DUTCH.. Popular name for a gaily decorated Staffordshire type pottery produced approximately 1810 -30 mainly for the USA market
GAUDY WELSH. Also known as Swansea Cottage and Gaudy ironstone. Made in Swansea,Wales and Staffordshire,England.Very popular with the working class Victorians.Now in modern times highly collectable,even more so than Gaudy Dutch which if anything is rarer.Popular both sides of the Atlantic.
GIRL IN A SWING. Early porcelain figures mainly white,sometimes attributed to Chelsea workmen.1750 approx.
GREATBACH. WM...Potter of Lane delph,Staffordshire,England.
GREYHOUND JUGS> Jugs showing Greyhounds as handles.The best were made in the Dyvatty pottery Swansea, and were covered in a deep treacle brown glaze.All around the jugs there are Hanging Game such as Rabbits,Pheasants and fruit and nuts..Staffordshire potteries also produced these jugs but the handles show smaller greyhounds and less well modelled bodies..
GRIFFIN MARK.. See Rockingham pottery.
GROUND COLOURS. The background colours of glaze.Sometimes yellow,deep blue,turquoise,claret and green.
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Independent faience and porcelain painters of Germany.Working on white porcelain
in the Meissen,Vienna districts.
HEARTY GOOD FELLOW.Nickname given to a Toby jug in the form of a swaggering fellow holding a jug of ale.
HISTORICAL BLUE.. Staffordshire Olde Blue and White transfer printed pottery with scenes of real places,famous people,also historical events.
HO HO BIRD.. The Bird of Classic paintings on porcelain showing a Phoenix.
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Named after a port in Japan.Imari is very decorative using the colours of
iron red,blue and gold.
IMPASTO. The thick colours that are applied so thickly that they seem to satnd out in relief from the ornament.
IRONSTONE CHINA.Strong Stone china, made by great potteries such as Masons..Ironstone china was much used in tableware and huge dinner services weighing enormously heavy graced many a dresser,contributing to the sagging so often seen on the dresser shelves
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Jackfield was in Shropshire,England and Black Glazed earthenware pottery was
much made there..Sometimes pattrened in bright enamel flowers and gilded.
JAPAN PATTERNS. Loose term to describe Imari type patterns used on English transfer ware in Victorian days.Brocade patterns using a lavish gilding process interspersed with deep cobalt blues and reds etc.,made the most wonderful designs that are still avidly collected today.
JASPERWARE. Fine grained stoneware perfected by Wedgwood in 1775.Jasper could be coloured Blue,lilac,green,black and beige.Also copied by other potteries,but few achieved the standard laid down by Wedgwood
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The name given to forms of lace like decoration,much used on Dresden porcelain.
LEEDS. Yorks.A famous pottery founded there in 1760 the Bros Green. Fine creamware was a speciality.Also pierced decoration was common.Backstamp Hartley Greens & co also Leeds pottery.
LIVERPOOL. Famous pottery founded 1793 but renamed the Herculaneum.Creamware was much made as at Leeds,often transfer printed in Blue or black.
LIVERPOOL DELFTWARE. Began in 1710.It was made at 8 potteries in this area.By 1770 the industry declined until there were only 3 potteries left. Liverpool Delftware is difficult to differentiate from Lambeth and Bristol..Liverpool shows a russet red,also blue,green and yellow, and the designs show floral groups and lattice type fencework.Red was used to edge the rims. Liverpool shapes of plates are often angled obtusely with the bottom,mugs are bell shaped with spreading feet,large vases are usually decorated blue,puzzle jugs with perforated necks in heart shapes,wall pockets,trinket dishes,also flower bricks with round holes and a wavy edge below standing on 4 solid ball type feet.
LONG ELIZAS.. A phrase said to have arisen in Holland.These long Elizas were the tall ladies often depicted on Kanghsi blue and white..
LONGTON HALL.(soft paste porcelain). Founded in 1750 by William Jenkinson. Characteristics of this porcelain are a deep blue used as a ground sometimes painted over in opaque white enamel.Also paintings with roses showing a quivering outline, also a border design in relief of strawberries and leaves.The porcelain is very heavy and very glassy with a green translucency showing many imperfections,rather like some Swansea porcelain.The figurines produced at this factory can be identified by poses of a half turning to the right or left.The bases are scrolled and lined in red,the dress of the figures show stars and motifs and not flowers.Gold or gilding was never a strong point.
LOWESTOFT. Started in 1757.Lowestoft specialized in table wares,normally decorated in Pseudo Chinese patterns in underglaze blue or enamels.There is a real closeness to Bow Porcelain.The blue and white being virtually indistinguishable.Both factories used bone ash..Characteristics of this factory are wedge shaped foot rims and marks in blue inside the footrims.However Meissen and Worcester backstamps were copied.
LUSTRE...Many lustres were fashionable.Perhaps the most popular was Pink and Purple lustre,then closely followed by copper lustre and gold lustre.Silver lustre was fine when used as a resist,that is resembling a pattern,the lustre being applied to a sort of stencil that resisted the silver in places.However the use of all over silver lustre to resemble actual Silver tableware, was a disaster aesthetically speaking.Also with handling the silver often wore off to reveal awful bare patches..Not many collectors like all over silver lustre
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A term we copied originally from the Italian word Maiolica,this was the most
wonderful deeply coloured and moving works of art in ceramics..Majolica became
intensely popular in Victorian days as it was used for mythical items,tableware
of every description,huge vases and seats in gardens,also immense Jardineires
holding elegant Victorian plants.Some of the best Majolica was made by names
such as Mintons and George Jones of Staffordshire..
MARTHA GUNN.. Female Toby jug modelled in the likeness of the famous Brighton bathing woman.. 1727 - 1815
MASON Famous potters of Staffordshire and Liverpool.Their ironstone pottery and the decoration in Gaudy or Japan colours,was and is a firm favourite with so many collectors. Their ironstone china was patented in 1813.The backstamp usually says >Masons.
MINTON,THOMAS. Originally apprenticed at Caughley.Minton worked for Spode and it was here that his thoughts first materialized as to setting up his own factory which he did in 1796 at Stoke.At first he made pottery only,especially blue printed wares.However it is his fine Porcelain that followed on that was so exceptional, and the hand painted wares he produced will ever be a constant source of delight to collectors Worldwide.
MOCHA WARES.. Decorated wares with fern like or tree effects.Made from about 1780 - 1914.So named after Mocha Quartz.
MOONS.. Spots of higher translucency often seen in porcelain.
MUFFLE Kiln used for low temperature firing of about 700-800 degrees. The porcelain is enclosed in an inner chamber away from the direct flames.Enamels are fused onto the glaze of faience and for the firing of soft paste in general
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China. Blue and white porcelain of the late 18th and 19th century which was
shipped from Nanking.
NANTGARW. World famous porcelain works founded by William Billingsley in the County of Glamorgan,Wales,Great Britain....Billingsley was perhaps the most famous of all English porcelain painters.Nantgarw was started in 1813 but later transferred to Swansea.He did return briefly to Nantgarw but was plagued by lack of finances,even though he did gain much support from business men,including Dilwyn of Swansea...However because of a commitment to the Worcester factory that Billingsley had not divulged to Dillwyn,this when it became known to Dillwyn rather marred their relationship.....Billingsley was without doubt a genius in his field,his works now fetch huge amounts of money and are some of the most keenly sought (and fought) after porcelain items in the World.It must be mentioned that a lot of Nantgarw porcelain was also decorated in London and other places by very skilled artists, as the texture of the porcelain was considered only 2nd to Sevres...Nantgarw factory works carried on for many years making pottery items under the Pardoe family.One of the Pardoe's called Thomas was a great porcelain painter himself,working at Bristol and Nantgarw..The Porcelain works is now a small museum, run in the main by a dedicated group of volunteers..
NOTTINGHAM Stoneware pottery from the late 17th century to about 1800, making thinly potted wares otiginally.However Nottingham tankards were later hammered onto the Bars in the public houses to prove to the customers how strong they were..Decoration was usually pierced,and incised
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GLAZE. Decoration applied after the wares were glazed and fired.Also called
"Over the glaze".
OPAQUE CHINA. Name applied to certain pottery. Victorian potteries called their wares Opaque in an attempt to entice the buying public away from Porcelain. The pottery was finer but never truly Opaque.
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French potter who was originally an artist who after experimentation with
glazes,became famous in a making pottery and decorating it with mingled colour
glazes, many items were made in relief..He is mainly known for the items he
made encrusted with Snakes,Lizards,Shells,Fish etc.,the glazes were in browns,greens
yellow etc.Palissy was eventually imprisoned in the Bastille and died there
in 1590.Copies of his work are now generically known as Palissy ware.
PAP DISH. A shallow boat type dish with a tube spout for feeding babies and invalids.
PARDOE..1770-1823. Porcelain painter of great fame, worked at Derby,Worcester and bristol.Also more famously at the Nantgarw Porcelain factory in Glamorganshire,Wales..See also >>Nantgarw.
PARIAN WARE. Or statuary ware.Very fine granied waxy porcelain looking like a white mearble.It was first made in 1840 by both Copeland and Minton.It was exhibited at the Crystal Palace exhibitions in London and New York.The Anericans loved it straightaway,and was then esatblished as a favourite.Mainly used for portraits,busts and ormaments of Mythical and Greek Gods and Godesses.
PASTILLE BURNERS> In the days of poor sanitation and over crowded urban areas,Pastille Burners were an early form of room fresheners.The lids came off many and inside were placed fragrant oils,charcoal, scented tapers etc,which when lit would emit a sweet fragrance inside the overcrowded Victorian Homes.Now collected avidly alongside Staffordshire figures.
PEARLWARE A white variety of creamware pottery introduced by Josiah Wedgwood as Queen's Ware in 1779.
PEW GROUPS. Salt glazed stoneware groups seated in "pews" or benches.These are a form of early Staffordshire figure groups..Attributed to the Wood family.
PINXTON.. This Derbyshire factory dated approx 1793 - 1813 was started with the technical help of the famous William Billingsley of Nantgarw fame.The porcelain was very fine and translucent.The yellow ground colour is always associated with Pinxton.
PLYMOUTH.. In 1768 William Cooksworthy took out a patent for hard paste porcelain.His factory works was then moved to Bristol in 1770.The defects on this porcelain were many, such as discoloration,firing cracks,warping etc. The enamels were painted in a dirty looking colour and showing often in relief.The bases of the figures were often Rococco and a deep red used as colour on them.
PORCELAIN.. Vitrified ware,translucent fired at great heat.The hard paste porcelain is made of china clay and china stone normally attributed to the mainland European or Continental factories..The True or soft paste porcelain are white clay with glassy frit,sometimes soapstone and later bone ash, normally attributed to British factories..Most factories had their own formula varying from poor to excellent.
PORRINGER>> Child's basin for porridge or soup.
PORTOBELLO WARE. Made at Staffordshire (Tunstall) in 1830 approximately,in imitation of Pratt ware made at Portobello in Scotland.
PRATT WARES. Made at the end of the 18th century decorated in a distinct colour pallette of drab blue,brown,ochre,yellow,orange and a drab green.It was made in Staffordshire, but also at S.wales,Liverpool,Sunderland and preston.
PRINTING or Transfer printing on pottery or porcelain carried out by inking an engraved metal plate.An impression is then taken onto thin paper and applied to the item being decorated. The engraving while still wet from the ink is then transferred onto the item.The item would have already been glazed, and when it is fired the printing sinks into the glaze to form the smooth outer coating.First used in London,England 1753,then in Worcester and Liverpool...Printing in blue was achieved by a similar process but before the application of the glaze to the items.This blue transfer printing invention was first done at Worcester.
PUNCH BOWL> Large container or basin for holding hot Punch.Made in Ceramic,glass or metal including Silver.
PUZZLE JUG. Jug made in pottery,the neck being perforated with holes,and 3 or 4 spouts would be added that were interjoined by tubes,The idea was to attempt to empty the vessel without spilling the contents.
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MARKS. Appearing on English china between 1842 -67 and 1868 - 83.The mark
will show as a lozenge with added code letters and numerals.The deciphering
of the actual dates are done by using the registery of marks.
RELIEF DECORATION.. Moulded to the actual body as raised areas in "relief" from the main body.Also "raised" by hand modelling.Mainly decorated in coloured enamels over the glaze.
RESIST LUSTRE.. See lustreware.
RIDGWAY. Very important Staffordshire factory established at Hanley and then Cauldon place,Shelton from 1812.Ridgway were makers of pottery and porcelain.Some of their wares reached a very high standard indeed.
ROCKINGHAM The Rockingham works produced some of the most elaborate and fanciful of porcelain --founded near Swinton in Yorkshire in 1750,later allied to Leeds from 1787 to 1806.After this date it passed to the Bramheld family.More is written on this factory in an article listed on our site map.
ROSSO ANTICO.. A term used by Wedgwood to describe his red stoneware.
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GLAZED STONEWARE.. Stoneware in which the glaze is formed by throwing salt
into the kilns at the highest possible temperature..The salt decomposes forming
sodium oxide and hydrochloric acid,this forms a coating of glass.
SAMSON of Paris. Famous porcelain factory originally made famous by it's beautiful copies of Chinese porcelain and later,also the copies they made of great porcelain works such as Meissen,Nantgarw,Chelsea,Derby etc.Each item was said to have had a "S" painted onto the decoration,but very rarely is this found.
SGRAFFITO.The cutting away or the scratching through a coating of slip to expose the colour of the underlying body. Used in S.Wales,Devon,Somerset and Staffordshire..Also incised patterns.
SLIP// A clay watered down to a creamy consistency and used as decoration to earthenwares,in lines or dots.
SPODE<JOSIAH.. Very famous English potter(y) started in 1770 in Stoke on Trent,his son carried on the family tradition and introduced porcelain in 1810.Spode is considered the inventor of bone china.W.J.Copeland became a partner in 1813 and Manager in 1829.Some of the very finest English pottery and porcelain was made at Spode.The modern works are now owned by the Royal Worcester factory.The most famous of Spode's patterns was and is the Blue Italian
STONEWARE.. Hard fired wares mostly salt glazed.
SUNDERLAND.. Situated in Durham,famous for it's purple and pink splashed lustres,ship wall plaques, sailing jugs and bowls.Inscriptions were common on many wares,and related in most instances to the sea and the Mariners..
SWANSEA.. Glamorganshire,Wales,Great Britain...The famous Cambrian Pottery was started here in 1765 and run by the Dillwyn family in the main...Some of the best porcelain ever produced and painted to the highest standard was made at Swansea.There was also other potteries in the area, notably the Glamorgan Pottery producing good quality tablewares,also the Llanelly pottery situated near Swansea, the Ynysmedw pottery and the Dyvatty pottery.
William Billingsley worked at the Cambrian factory, and transferred his Nantgarw Porcelain here for a short while.
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Marks, probably the initial for the modeller Thibaud at Bow,Bristol and Plymouth.
TINGLAZE.. Lead glaze made opaque by the addition of tin ashes.
TOBY JUGS. Jugs shaped like a man, and originally named after Toby Fillpot the nickname of a noted toper,said to have served as the original model.Sometimes especially on the earlier Toby jugs, the tricorn hats form the detachable lids.The best ones were made by Ralph Woods.Toby Jugs are very popular with collectors worldwide.
TOFT.. A name incised on very early English pottery.
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POCKET>> Flower vase shaped as a corncupia or a mask,lying flat to the
wall.Stylised Face masks were very popular in the Artdeco period >1920-1939
WASSAIL BOWL.. 2 handled Loving cups passed one to the other at weddings,and all village get togethers..
WEDGWOOD,JOSIAH. 1730 -95. Entered into partnership with Thomas Wheildon in 1754.Wedgwood was the Master of all potters and the hallmark of quality..Famous for his Jasperware,Queensware,Basalt etc. In 1768 he built a new factory at Etruria..The .Wedgwood family carried on with the great pottery tradition adding Porcelain only in the 20th century to their vast array of pottery products.Wedgwood was/is one of the easiest of wares to be recognised as nearly all were backstamped Wedgwood..Not to be confused with Enoch Wedgwood,another Staffordshire pottery of lesser fame but nevertheless a good Staffordshire pottery.Enoch Wedgwood shows a Unicorn with their backstamp.
WHIELDON,Thomas 1719 -1795. One of the foremost potters of his day from Fenton in Staffordshire,England. Manufactured all types of wares,famous for his agate ,marble,tortoiseshell,Astbury and Jackfield wares in Earthenware, showing dappled coloured glazes..
WILLOW PATTERN.. Blue printed Pseudo Chinese pattern that needs no introduction..(See Old Blue and White article on Glamorgan Antiques site map for further reference.)
WOOD,Ralph 1715 - 1772 Very famous Staffordshire potter and modeller...See >Toby Jugs.
WORCESTER.. Very famous factory founded in 1751 and this period,originally called after Dr John Wall.. The porcelain is greyish green,under light,with a hard looking tight glaze which often shrinks away from the foot rim.The earliest painting is distinguished by Chinoiseries, in polychrome enamels or underglaze blue......In 1769 ex Chelsea painters worked at Worcester and the more elaborate style dates from this period ,with exotic birds and figures,in panels on coloured ground >blue,claret,turquoise,applegreen,and lilac shades, frequently diapered, the most frequent pattern being on Scale Blue or Dark blue ground.By 1780 classical designs were introduced....Landscapes and figure subjects were much favoured.Blue and white porcelain was extensively produced,painted and printed.
In 1783 the factory was bought by Thomas Flight.....Martin Barr was also taken into patnership, and the Barr,Flight and Barr, and the subsequent Flight,Barr and Barr names were applied to the periods from 1807 - 1840.
Another important Worcester associate was Robert Chamberlain who in 1783 left the factory and set up as a decorator.He produced a greyish porcelain and his work is notable for the profuse gilding and the wares decorated in the Japanese taste.
Next we have the Thomas Grainger era, who at first in 1801 decorated porcelain obtained elsewhere, but subsequntly manufactured a fine white and translucent porcelain
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Utility ware moulds such as baking dishes of cream or buff clays with a transparent
glaze in yellow variations.it beame the Rockingham glaze when given a mottled
brown manganese colouring,widely made in 1830 - 1900
YORKSHIRE.. Trailed and marble slipwares were made at Howcans,Swill Hill,Burton in Lonsdale,Midhope,also at Leeds,Don Pottery,Castleford and Ferrybridge.
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